Ticks are the main transmitters of the virus of the fever, Crimean-Congo, which has led to the death of Avila as a man of 74 years, although it can also be spread by contact with blood or tissues of other infected animals.
This is the third case of the disease that occurs in Spain from 2016, the year in which he died a man of 62 years by the bite of a tick, when a stroll through the countryside in a village of Ávila, and infected the nurse who treated in a hospital in madrid.
The hemorrhagic fever Crimean-Congo (CCHF) is produced by a virus transmitted by the bite of a garrapatainfectada, of the genus Hyalomma are the most efficient”, according to the protocol of surveillance of this disease, approved by the Commission of Public Health in 2016, and updated in may of last year.
After the two cases of 2016, a study by the Health Ministry and the autonomous communities of Extremadura, Madrid, Castilla-La Mancha and Castilla y León detected the presence of infected ticks in wild animals in municipalities of seven of the eleven counties livestock analyzed.
The man of 74 years who died in Avila participated last July in a cinegetic activity in the town in badajoz of Helechosa of the Mountains, where he suffered the bite of a tick. The protocol stresses that could not be ruled out the emergence of human cases of sporadic, although the risk in Spain “is considered to be low”.
The virus mainly affects people who are exposed to populations of ticks, such as workers in the livestock industry, farmers, veterinarians or hunters in the endemic areas, among others.
“You can be transmitted between humans through close contact with blood, secretions, other bodily fluids or organs from a case of symptomatic or deceased,” the document says, adding that the risk of transmission is higher in the last stages of the disease.
The mortality ranges between 5 and 40 %.
Be greater than 60 years, the presence of haemorrhagic manifestations, organ failure, elevation of liver enzymes, leukopenia and leukocytosis, among other ailments, are considered prognostic markers of disease severity.
The usual symptoms during the pre-hemorrhagic are the fever, sharp pain, headache and dizziness for four or five days, though it may also appear other symptoms such as diarrhea, vomiting or conjunctivitis.
Subsequently, the hemorrhagic manifestations range from petechiae to large haematomas on the skin and mucous membranes, bleeding, mostly from nose, gums, gastrointestinal, vaginal, uterine, urinary tract or of the respiratory system and can even lead to bleeding in the brain.
The disease can evolve in the form of hepatitis, according to the protocol, and severely ill patients may undergo a “rapid” deterioration in renal or liver failure, or pulmonary sudden after the fifth day of illness. Early diagnosis and supportive care improve the survival of patients.
To try to prevent it, it is recommended, among others, reviewing the clothing -“the light colors facilitate visualization of the ticks”- before entering the place of residence, a self-examination of the body after the potential exposure to ticks, use repellents, preferably with clothes on and avoid sitting on the ground in areas of vegetation.
If it detects a garrapataen the body, according to experts in public health, you must remove it as soon as possible; avoid traditional remedies such as oil, oil or heat; primary, use tweezers to grasp it firmly as close to the skin as possible and pull it gently upwards, and then clean the wound well with soap and water