The human being is made of a very reasonable. But the evolution does not create perfection, only produces features, considered to be the anthropologist of the University of Princeton, Alan Mann. With the backdrop of a large number of organs that work together harmoniously, in our body there are also shortcomings. And most of them are associated with the complex process of evolution.
In Great.guru , we have compiled the 10 mistakes are most obvious in the structure of the human body and, after familiarizing ourselves with the study of gerontologists from the united States, as well as with the “List defective of the human body” – Chip Rowe, we imagine how the situation could be remedied.
1. We cannot breathe and swallow simultaneously
The food that we eat and the air we breathe enter the body through the same way. The trachea and esophagus intersect. To prevent the introduction of food into the trachea, the epiglottis, a special body, closes the opening of the larynx reflexively when we swallow. But sometimes it does not work fast enough. If you talk and you laugh while eating, food can slip and enter in the airways. Sometimes this leads to a result which is lethal.
By the way, babies can swallow and breathe at the same time, but with time they lose this amazing skill.
- How would it be better? Take, for example, the whales. Your larynx is in the opening breathing in the top of the head. If we move the larynx into the nose, we can have two tubes separate. The drawback of this solution: since we could not speak.
2. We only have one row of teeth, and until we have some more
We only have a set of teeth that should durarnos entire life. But, according to the statistics, very few people can keep you complete until the old age. And the teeth are not renewed.
Is more, wisdom teeth are usually useless. Were necessary for our ancestors, with their lower jaw the longest, where there was room without any problem. Now, these teeth do not help us in the process of chewing food, it is only a rudiment, like the coccyx.
- How would it be better? Depending on the species, a shark can have from 4 to 28 rows of teeth in the mouth, and the loss of some of them is not a problem. But, to accommodate more teeth, the mouth should be larger.
3. The retina in our eyes is upside down
The cells of the photoreceptors in the retina are similar to a few microphones turned. This position causes the light to travel along the entire length of each cell, as well as through the blood and tissues to reach the lens.
Due to the imperfection of this design, the retina tends to detach from the supporting tissues, and this is one of the leading causes of blindness. For the same reason, we have a blind spot: an area that is insensitive to light.
- How would it be better? In many representatives of the fauna, the structure of the eye is organized in a different way. For example, in the retina of the squid and the octopus photoreceptor cells are turns towards the source of light, which makes the arrangement of their eyes is much more “logic” in the human. Well worth you taking their example and simply give back to the retina.
4. The stomach unprotected
Throughout the body, the face and hands can withstand heavy loads and severe beating. For example, the brain is protected by skull, to solid. Only the abdominal cavity, full of vital organs, is covered by a thin layer of muscles. That’s why, simply falling wrong for a person to suffer damage to the internal organs.
- How would it be better? Our body can be compared to a castle that is surrounded by thick walls, but in the middle there is a bridge, covered with a fence of boards. To prevent hernias and improve the protection of the abdominal cavity, it would be good to increase the amount of ribs.
5. Our spine should not be straight
Everything that the people above the waist creates pressure on the vertebral column that, as a result, it twists, creating an additional load on all the internal organs. Hence the chronic fatigue and back pain. Even with an active lifestyle, with time, the spine will “wear out” by the charges.
To keep the body and head in an upright position, the spine should not be straight, but curved forward, that is, having a pronounced form of S. The problem is that there are many side effects by curvatures of this type, for example, increased pressure on the internal organs and blood vessels, its compression and displacement.
- How would it be better? Bruce Latimer, of the University of Case, in Cleveland, believes that the backbone is ideal to the dogs: a continuous arc that goes from the sacrum up to the neck. There is only one drawback: in order to maintain the weight of the head and fall forward, we would have to re put in four legs.
6. The composition of the legs is too complicated
In the human leg there are 26 bones (30, if you count from the hip). This was necessary for our ancestors as they moved through the trees. The man began to walk on the ground, but his legs kept moving parts and ligaments, which practically are not involved in the process of walking. Because of this, we have problems like stretching, dislocations, and fractures.
- How would it be better? The leg of the ostrich is more comfortable and “efficient”: the ankles and the bones of the femur are connected, the fingers are only two, and they are involved in the process of moving. It would also have to re-back the patella, as they often suffer from falls or blows.
7. We do not have a regeneration, well-developed
If a person misses the first phalanx of the finger pad up to a certain level, the missing part is regenerated in 3 months. Initially, it was believed that this was possible only in children, but the scientist R. B. Borgens demonstrated that this phenomenon is also observed in adults. However, we cannot regenerate an organ or a limb in full due to the high complexity of our organism.
- How would it be better? The best in regenerating limbs damaged are newts or salamanders. Are able to restore the lens of the eye, the limbs, tail and even part of the lower jaw with new teeth. A skill so definitely not, we would do evil.
8. Scientists are still not completely sure why we need a appendix
Many people do not know what the answer to the question “what does a human need the appendix?”. And, at the same time, between 5 and 10% of people have experienced appendicitis, or the inflammation of the appendix, which makes it required urgent surgical intervention.
Charles Darwin believed that the appendix was a rudiment that we have inherited from our ancestors. They needed it for certain processes that facilitated the assimilation of food.
- How would it be better? At first glance, it would seem that the best thing for a person would be born without the appendix. But it is a body immune and protective (though not the most obvious) and demonstrates that in the human body there are no “spare parts” to be unnecessary.
9. It is really hard for women to give birth
The birth has been painful at all times, and in some eras, it was even a dangerous process. The fact is that women have a birth canal is quite narrow. In addition to the unpleasant sensations, this increases the risk of injury during the birth. This peculiarity of the structure of the birth canal women was formed due to the rapid evolutionary development of the human being.
- How would it be better? Bruce Latimer is confident that in 10 thousand or even in a thousand years, no woman in the developed world to give birth naturally. In the clinic, will connect the sperm and the egg, and then the parents just come to look at the baby.
10. There are errors during the cell division
Professor Bryan Sykes believes that the chromosomes “And” that define the male sex will disappear in 125 thousand years. It turns out that, unlike other chromosomes, it cannot be restored. “In each new generation, the 1% of men will have a mutation that will reduce their fertilizing capacity by 10%,” believes the scientist.
You must take into account the fact that, with the increase in the consumption of alcohol, environmental pollution and constant stress, the disappearance of the chromosomes “And” can be accelerated.
- How would it be better? You have to save the men. We really hope that the development of science does not allow a course of events so sad. The task of saving the chromosome, “And” should become a priority for scientists.
The researchers add to this list the multi-functionality of the genitals, the inability for the biosynthesis of vitamin C and even the fact that the reproductive organs vital of men are outside and, therefore, are very vulnerable.
Bonus: this is as it should be the human of the future, according to scientists
As we can see, this person looks very unusual, but, according to the gerontologists, this structure will help to avoid many health problems. But every change has its side effects: for example, the excess ribs would deprive us of the flexibility and decrease our ability to move, and the union of the bones of the legs would make it impossible to play football.
Do you think that a person of the future may resemble what you imagine the scientists? And if you could change something in the structure of your own body, what would you like to correct?
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