A group of astronomers have discovered the supermassive black hole most distant observed. Resides in a quasar light and light comes from when the universe was only 5 percent of its present age. Quasars are objects that are tremendously brilliant composed by enormous black holes that acrecen the subject in the center of the massive galaxies. This black hole was recently discovered has a mass of 800 billion times the mass of the Sun.
“Gather up all this mass in less than 690 million of years (since the Big Bang) is a desafío huge for the theories of the growth of super-massive black hole, “explains Eduardo Bañados, of the Carnegie Institution, who led the research, conducted with the Magellan telescope and is published in Nature.
To explain how black holes so big came so soon after the Big Bang, astronomers have speculated that the early universe could have had conditions that would allow the creation of black holes is very large with masses ranging up to 100,000 times the mass of the Os –l. This is very different from black holes that form in the current universe, which rarely exceed a few dozen solar masses.
Bram Venemans of the Max Planck Institute for Astronomy in Germany, added: “quasars are among the celestial objects the brightest and most distant known, and are crucial for understanding the early universe“. The quasar of Wetlands is particularly interesting because it is the time known as the epoch of reionization, when the universe emerged from its dark age.
The Big Bang began the universe as a hot soup and cloudy particles extremely energy that is expanding rapidly. As it expanded, it cooled. About 400,000 years later (very quickly on a cosmic scale), these particles are cooled and are fused in hydrogen gas neutral.
The universe remained dark, without any light source, until the gravity condensed matter into the first stars and galaxies. The energy released by these galaxies old caused the neutral hydrogen spread throughout the universe excitara and ionizara, or lost an electron, a state in which the gas has remained since that time. Once the universe is reionizó, the photons could travel freely through space, so that the universe became transparent to light.
The analysis of the quasar’s newly discovered shows that a large fraction of the hydrogen in their immediate environment is neutral, which indicates that astronomers have identified a source at the epoch of reionization, before enough of the first stars and galaxies were activated to completely ionize the universe. “It was the last great transition of the universe and one of the current frontiers of astrophysics”, says Bathed.
The distance of the quasar is determined by what is referred to as its red shift, which is a measure of how much you stretch the wavelength of their light by the expansion of the universe before reaching Earth. The higher the redshift, the greater the distance, the astronomers and later are looking at time when you observe the object. This quasar’s newly found has a redshift of 7.54, based on the detection of emissions of carbon ionized in the galaxy hosting the black hole mass.
“This great distance makes these objects are extremely faint when viewed from Earth. Quasars early also are very rare in the sky. Only knew that there was a quasar with a redshift greater than seven prior to now, despite an extensive search,” says Xiaohui Fan, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona.
It is expected that between 20 and 100 quasars as bright and as distant as the quasar discovered by Bañados and his team exist in all of heaven, so this is an important discovery that will provide information fundamental to the universe young, when it was only 5 percent its current age.